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Ariel Bentolila, Member US Patent Bar

Obtaining broad, high quality patent protection requires specialized legal and technical expertise, and the investment of several thousands dollars- typically at a cost of about $6-10K to prepare and file the patent application. However, if you are a small entity (i.e., a small business or individual) on a very limited budget we can usually provide you fee reduction assistance (usually 50% off; i.e., $3,000-$5,000) if our docket permits. If you are looking for low-cost, quality oriented Provisional "Patent Pending", that usually 50% of our Utility Patent Application fee (i.e., as low as $1,500-$3,000, depending upon case complexity), and low cost provisionals from $300. Just give us a call or request a quote to check for current pricing availability.

As experts in patents, our legal practice has been very successful in winning valuable patents (click here for 100's of sample patents) for our clients. Clients of the firm always deal directly with our principle partner, Ariel Bentolila, on all of their legal matters, and are assured personal attention, open and direct communication, and the highest quality legal services, which we have consistently rendered to well over 1000 clients served over our 10 years of legal practice. We look forward to adding you to our ever growing ranks of satisfied clients (click here for representative client endorsements).

 

Patent Pending and Product Marking

Should I apply initially for a Full Utility Patent Application or a Provisional Patent Application (PPA)?

A Full Utility Patent Application costs a lot of money, why do it instead of a Provisional Patent Application (PPA)?

If I decided on doing a Provisional Patent Application, of the Quality oriented or Cost oriented Provisional Patent Application approaches, which is right for me?

Infringement of Patents

Beware of the Patent Marking Trolls

Intellectual Property Information

About Our Provisional "Patent Pending" Application (PPA) Practice

 

Patent Pending and Product Marking

"Patent Pending" is a phrase that is sometimes seen on manufactured items. Patent pending means that someone has filed for a patent on an invention and is waiting to see if the patent is granted.

Manufacturers use patent pending as a warning that a patent may be issued that would cover the item and that copiers should be careful because they might infringe if the patent issues. Once the patent issues, the patent owner will stop using the phrase patent pending and start using a phrase such as "covered by U.S. Patent Number XXXXXXX."

Applying the patent pending phrase to an item when no patent application has been made can result in a fine. You can only use the term patent pending if you have applied for a patent (provisonal or non-provisional). Unfortunately, there is a common association of "Patent Pending" exclusively with Provisional Patent Applictions; however, both a provisonal patents and non-provisional patents provide Patent Pending status and there are many reasons not to file a lower quality provisional patent application..

NOTE: you cannot use the term patent pending if it is not true.

A patentee who makes or sells patented articles, or a person who does so for or under the patentee is required to mark the articles with the word "Patent" and the number of the patent. The penalty for failure to mark is that the patentee may not recover damages from an infringer unless the infringer was duly notified of the infringement and continued to infringe after the notice.

The marking of an article as patented when it is not in fact patented is against the law and subjects the offender to a penalty. Some persons mark articles sold with the terms "Patent Applied For" or "Patent Pending." These phrases have no legal effect, but only give information that an application for patent has been filed in the Patent and Trademark Office. The protection afforded by a patent does not start until the actual grant of the patent. False use of these phrases or their equivalent is prohibited.

 

Should I apply initially for a Full Utility Patent Application or a Provisional Patent Application (PPA)?

The answer to this common question mostly depends on your financial situation and goals.  Of course, if you knew that your idea was going to be worth millions of dollars, then their would be no question about it, and you would be sure to file a top quality Utility patent application right away.  However, for inventors who think that their idea might receive little interest in the marketplace, a Provisional "Patent Pending" application may be the best risk/reward option, especially if your budget is extremely limited. Please click here for the main Provisional "Patent Pending" application pros and cons. In general, the decision is boils down to the level of investment you feel is warranted, or the most you can invest, to protect the potential future revenues your idea may generate. If you do not think that your idea will sell in the marketplace, or if you simply can not afford a quality Utility patent application, then a Provisional "Patent Pending" application might be your best option. On the other hand, if you think that your idea has commercially potential, which may be confirmed, for example, if pertinent professionals or consumers like it, then a Utility Patent Application will provide you the best quality patent protection for licensing and against idea theft and knock-off productsClick here for a more detailed explanation of why a Utility Patent Application inherently is of much higher quality than a Provisional "Patent Pending" application.

Full Utility Patent Application costs a lot of money, why do it instead of a Provisional Patent Application (PPA)?

Again, if you knew that your idea was going to be worth millions of dollars, then their would certainly be no question about it, and you would be sure to file a top quality Utility patent application right away.  If you are an individual inventor, which is probably why you are considering a Provisional "Patent Pending" Application, we know it seems like a lot of money at first, but, to frame the context more accurately, like any decision, it is all about assessing the opportunity -vs.- cost. On the opportunity side of the equation, if the opportunity seems to be relatively significant and there is some positive feedback from industry players (e.g., professionals, companies, academia, executives, etc.), then a less quality Patent Application (e.g., a cost-focused Provisional "Patent Pending" Application) may risk losing a valuable deal if a big player deems the application as legally insufficient to warrant their investment or licensing. Another significant risk is that the weaker Provisional "Patent Pending" Application might very well have technical and legal gaps in the disclosure that would allow would-be-copiers or licensees to more easily design around your patent, thereby losing all or part of your potential revenue stream. Click Here for a more detailed explanation of why a Utility Patent Application inherently is of much higher quality than a Provisional "Patent Pending" Application. Of course, if your confidence in the commercial value of your invention is relatively low, then a full Patent Application may not be for you, and you should Click Here to assess your better course of action.

On the cost side of the equation, generally, as the opportunity appears more significant, then the investment warranted usually follows some equation like $ to invest = $ Income Potential x Probability of Success. A low cost patent firm, such as Bay Area IP, can go a long way towards helping you take less upfront risk, while best positioning you to reap the rewards. For example, a typical, high overhead, patent firm would charge any where from $7,000 to $10,000 just to prepare and file a Utility Patent Application and about the same amount to prosecute it until issuance. That makes it almost impossible for the independent inventor to invest in a better quality Utility Patent, and forces them into the more risky Provisional "Patent Pending" Application. In contrast, our much lower fees  to prepare and file the same Utility Applications gets you in the quality "ball park", at substantially less risk. Our unique affordable-cost approach, provides a service at every quality step from a "full service"Utility Patent Application down to a completely do-it-yourself Provisional "Patent Pending" Application, which enables you to pick your optimal comfort zone balancing the Opportunity -vs.- Cost and Risk -vs.- Reward decisions against your financial situation.

 

If I decided on doing a Provisional Patent Application, of the Quality oriented or Cost oriented Provisional Patent Application approaches, which is right for me?

Having already decided upon a Provisional "Patent Pending" Application it is usually the case that you are on a limited budget, or have high uncertainty about the marketability of your idea. For some inventors, another variable is the number of ideas that patent protection is sought. The main decision point factors are as follows:

  1. Budget
  2. Marketability confidence
  3. Amount of work you are willing to do yourself under our guidance
  4. The number of inventions you seek Patent protection for

The first item to consider is your budget. If you simply cannot afford a Quality Oriented Provisional "Patent Pending" Application then the Cost Oriented Provisional "Patent Pending" Application is your way to go. If your budget is not the limiting factor, then the next decision point to consider is how much confidence you have in the marketability of your invention. Of course, the higher your confidence, a proportionately greater investment in patent protection warranted. That is, if you have done some basic marketability research (e.g., professionals like your idea, it is selling on eBay, you see inferior products in the market place, & etc., for marketing ideas read books by Jay Levinson) that is very positive, then you should procure the highest quality Provisional "Patent Pending" Application (if not a full Utility Patent) that you can afford. Similarly, the lower your marketability confidence, a commensurately lower amount of investment is justified. After establishing your budget and level of confidence, then you should decide how much work you are able, or willing, to do yourself with our guidance. For example, if you do not want to spend the time to initially write a Provisional "Patent Pending" Application disclosure yourself according to our Provisional "Patent Pending" Application kit, then either our Top or Good quality Provisional "Patent Pending" Application service is a good choice. If, however, you are willing to draft a Provisional "Patent Pending" Application under the guidance of our Provisional "Patent Pending" Application kit, and have relatively good confidence in the marketability of your idea, but only have a limited budget to work with, then either of our Drafting Basic Plus or Drafting Basic service is ideal. Because the Drafting Basic Plus level of service includes a broad claim, it is a good compromise between cost (e.g., "Drafting Basic" Provisional "Patent Pending" Application) and quality (e.g., the "Good quality" Provisional "Patent Pending" Application). Some inventors have multiple ideas they wish to pursue patent protection for. Often they do not know which one will be the most well received in the marketplace and cannot afford the cost of procuring high quality Provisional "Patent Pending" Applications for all of them. Some clients find a good approach in this situation is to procure, for the idea they have the most confidence in, a Quality Provisional "Patent Pending" Application that is then used as a template to pattern Provisional "Patent Pending" Applications for their other ideas, and use our Cost Oriented Provisional "Patent Pending" Application services to clean up and assure minimum legal validity for each of them.

Infringement of Patents

Infringement of a patent consists of the unauthorized making, using, offering for sale, or selling any patented invention within the United States or U.S. Territories, or importing into the United States of any patented invention during the term of the patent. If a patent is infringed, the patentee may sue for relief in the appropriate federal court. The patentee may ask the court for an injunction to prevent the continuation of the infringement and may also ask the court for an award of damages because of the infringement. In such an infringement suit, the defendant may raise the question of the validity of the patent, which is then decided by the court. The defendant may also aver that what is being done does not constitute infringement. Infringement is determined primarily by the language of the claims of the patent and, if what the defendant is making does not fall within the language of any of the claims of the patent, there is no literal infringement.

Suits for infringement of patents follow the rules of procedure of the federal courts. From the decision of the district court, there is an appeal to the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit. The Supreme Court may thereafter take a case by writ of certiorari. If the United States Government infringes a patent, the patentee has a remedy for damages in the United States Court of Federal Claims. The government may use any patented invention without permission of the patentee, but the patentee is entitled to obtain compensation for the use by or for the government. The US Patent Office has no jurisdiction over questions relating to infringement of patents. In examining applications for patent, no determination is made as to whether the invention sought to be patented infringes any prior patent. An improvement invention may be patentable, but it might infringe a prior unexpired patent for the invention improved upon, if there is one.

 

Beware of the Patent Marking Trolls

2010 was a landmark year with regard to the false patent marking. In just a week alone that year a single plaintiff has filed more than 20 separate false marking lawsuits in the US District Court for the Northern District of Illinois, and scores of similar suits have been filed in a variety of courts in recent weeks. These complaints allege that products were physically marked with patent numbers or other notations indicating that the product was covered by a patent when, in fact, the seller knew that the patent had expired, did not cover the product or was invalid.

This avalanche of cases is not due to a sudden flourishing of false patent markings. It is the result of a recent Federal Circuit Court of Appeals decision that established a potentially lucrative payday for plaintiffs who prevail on such claims.

Under Section 292(a) of the Patent Act, marking an unpatented article with intent to deceive the public mandates a fine of “not more than $500 for every such offense.” In The Forest Group, Inc. v. Bon Tool Co., No. 2009-1044 (Fed. Cir. Dec. 28, 2009), the court construed that provision to require imposition of the fine on a per-article basis (as opposed to a per-decision basis). Thus, a false patent marking on one million individual articles could generate an award of up to $500 million. Any persons can serve as plaintiffs in this “qui tam” cause of action, whether or not they have an interest in a patent or suffer any personal injury.

The Federal Circuit recognized that its ruling would encourage “a new cottage industry” of false marking litigation by plaintiffs who have not suffered any direct harm, but it concluded that such a consequence is imposed by the plain language of the statute.

The predicted “cottage industry” emerged in no time. Plaintiffs immediately began to scour store shelves and ads to search for markings of expired or questionable patents and have flocked to court with their claims.

This development warrants immediate caution among companies that regularly mark products with patent numbers or other patent indicia. After briefly summarizing the marking issue, this alert suggests steps to help mitigate false marking risk and potential defenses when faced with false patent marking claims.

Patent holders have good reason to mark patented products. Section 287(a) of the Patent Act provides that failure to mark such a product requires proof of actual notice of the patent before an infringer can be subject to damages. Marking obviates that actual notice requirement. But this reward can be more than offset if one runs afoul of Section 292.

Section 292 prohibits marking a product with either another’s patent, another patentee’s name (akin to counterfeiting) or a patent or application number (or other patent indicium) where no patent or patent application exists (akin to false advertising). Prohibited marks include those signifying expired patents, patents without issued claims reading on the marked product and patents that have been narrowed (e.g., by claim construction) so that no claims read on the marked product. To violate the statute, such marking must be for the “purpose of deceiving the public.”

To limit the risk of patent marking claims, companies should consider the following:

  • Establish procedures for legal department approval of patent markings, including designating responsibility for early warnings on patent expiration dates so that packaging templates can be re-designed and put into production prior to expiration.
  • Obtain legal opinions that a pending patent application or a patent covers a marked product, including evaluating the applicability of narrowed claims.
  • Establish systematic patent marking audit procedures.
  • Re-evaluate patent markings after key case rulings in offensive patent litigation, such as claim construction or summary judgment of non-infringement. The risk of follow-on false marking suits is particularly acute when a patent has been deemed unenforceable for inequitable conduct. In such cases, there will already have been a finding that the patentee intended to deceive the Patent & Trademark Office (PTO).
  • Avoid “may be covered” warnings on products. Courts have suggested that such qualified warnings may be insufficient to avoid Patent Act liability.

A company faced with a false patent marking claim has available several potential defenses. At the outset of the case, the constitutional validity of the statute could be attacked by a motion to dismiss. Although at least one court has considered and rejected a defendant’s arguments that the plaintiff lacked standing for lack of injury (Pequignot v. Solo Cup Co., 640 F. Supp. 2d 714 (E.D. Va. 2009)), there may be more to say on standing, and the Federal Circuit or the US Supreme Court may reach a different conclusion. For example, in Solo Cup, the court relied on cases holding that an assignee of a proprietary interest of the government (e.g., a qui tam fraud claim for damages under the False Claims Act) has standing. The defendant argued that in a Section 292 case, the interest asserted by the qui tam plaintiff is an interest of the government as sovereign in the enforcement of a law—not a proprietary interest in recovering monetary damages—and that a sovereign interest is not assignable.  Although the district court rejected this argument in Solo Cup, commentators have supported the distinction, and we believe it remains viable.

The Solo Cup court also rejected a constitutional challenge to the statute under the “Take Care” Clause of Article II of the US Constitution, based on the government’s lack of control over the litigation. But the Federal Circuit or the Supreme Court might reach a different conclusion. After all, courts have characterized Section 292 as a criminal statute. Traditionally, prosecutors have discretion to decide whether harm to the public requires prosecution and can recommend a quantum of punishment that is commensurate with that harm. Here, a private party controls whether the action will be commenced and recommends the amount of the fine to the court. That problematic aspect of this type of litigation arguably prevents the executive branch from discharging its responsibilities to enforce the criminal laws. The harm is exacerbated by the fact that the court’s discretion is essentially unfettered under the Patent Act.

Defendants also might consider arguing that, insofar as the interest at issue is the sovereign’s interest in enforcement of a criminal law, the lack of standards to determine the amount of the penalty per act may be unconstitutionally vague or arbitrary. Enforcement of such an imprecise standard could lead to excessive fines, particularly given the Federal Circuit’s recent construction of the statute to render each improperly marked article an independent offense.

The most likely route to success in defending against a false patent marking claim is to show on summary judgment a lack of intent to deceive the public. For example, in Solo Cup, it was undisputed that the defendant had knowledge that its product bore marks of expired patents and its product packaging contained a warning that the product “may be covered” by patents when, in some cases, they were not. However, the court held that knowledge of falsity creates only a rebuttable presumption of intent to deceive. A defendant could, and in that case did, offer sufficient evidence to rebut the presumption. With respect to the false patent marks, the court found that Solo Cup, on advice of counsel and for valid business reasons decided to remove the marks over time to minimize costs rather than to deceive the public. With respect to the “may be covered” warning in the product packaging, the court found that Solo Cup, again consistent with advice of counsel, used the warning as a practical way to protect its patent rights where its patent portfolio was constantly changing and where the company had established procedures on its website and phone lines to handle inquiries regarding patents.

The rule in Solo Cup, if applied by other courts, should also preclude liability where a defendant can show that it was negligent only in not promptly removing expired marks. For example, an employee in the law department of a company may have known that the patent expired, information not known to employees in other departments responsible for advertising and marking the products. If the company can demonstrate that the failure to remove marks of expired patents resulted from administrative oversight rather than an intent to deceive, it should not be liable under Section 292. All facts and circumstances should be considered. For example, if a product bears the marks of many valid patents and one expired patent, a company would have a strong argument that it had no intent to deceive since it is difficult to imagine under those circumstances how the mark of one expired patent could mislead the public and chill competition – the concerns underlying Section 292.

Furthermore, even if intent is proven, district courts have discretion to impose per-article damages below $500. Accordingly, a defendant with hundreds of thousands or millions of articles in circulation will have an opportunity to persuade the judge that damages of anything more than, say, a fraction of a penny per article would be inequitable.

Intent to Deceive Still Required

Parties who accidentally mark their products incorrectly are not subject to liability under the statute. The Federal Circuit made clear that the plaintiff asserting a false marking claim must show, by a preponderance of the evidence, that the accused party did not have a reasonable belief that the articles were correctly marked. However, a party's assertion that it did not intend to deceive “'is worthless as proof of no intent to deceive where there is knowledge of falsehood.'” Forest Group, slip op. at 6 (quoting Clontech Labs. Inc. v. Invitrogen Corp., 406 F.3d 1347, 1352 (Fed. Cir. 2005)).

The Forest Group decision provides a good illustration of what can constitute proof of intent to deceive. Forest Group is the assignee of U.S. Pat. No. 5,645,515, which claims an improved stilt of the type commonly used in the construction industry. Forest Group sued its competitor, Bon Tool, alleging that Bon Tool had sold stilts that infringed the '515 patent. Bon Tool counterclaimed, alleging that Forest Group had violated the false marking statute by marking its stilts with the '515 patent even though the patent did not cover Forest Group's product.

In February 2007, the district court issued a claim construction that was contrary to Forest Group's reading of the claims at issue and later granted summary judgment of noninfringement against Forest Group. Nevertheless, the district court found that those decisions, by themselves, did not give Forest Group the requisite knowledge that it should no longer mark its products with the number of the contested patent. The district court noted that the patent was written by an experienced patent lawyer, that the inventors did not have strong academic backgrounds, and that neither of them was versed in patent law. However, in November 2007, a court in another lawsuit involving the same patent construed the claims at issue in a manner similar to that of the first lawsuit and likewise granted summary judgment against Forest Group. The district court concluded that after the second adverse ruling, Forest Group had the requisite knowledge that any continued patent marking would be false. Yet, Forest Group continued to mark its products with the patent number after that date. The district court did not believe Forest Group's claim that it had instructed its manufacturer not to mark the products.

Citing the highly deferential “clearly erroneous” standard of review, the Federal Circuit upheld the district court's determination that Forest Group had a good faith basis to believe that its products were correctly marked prior to the November 2007 summary judgment order. The Federal Circuit noted, however, that “the quantum of proof regarding Forest Group's knowledge in this case is quite high” and went out of its way to point out that it is not necessary to have multiple adverse claim construction and summary judgment rulings in order to prove knowledge of falsity.

Because the district court had not determined how many articles were falsely marked by Forest Group after November 2007, the Federal Circuit remanded the case. On remand, the district court will have to determine the number of falsely marked articles and how large a civil penalty, not to exceed $500 per article, should be imposed.

Implications

The Federal Circuit's holding that the false marking statute imposes a penalty for each improperly marked article creates the potential for significant liability for patentees and licensees. Although the Federal Circuit emphasized the trial court's discretion to impose a penalty significantly less than the statutory maximum, the statute's broad standing provision encourages plaintiffs to file lawsuits that may impose costly discovery obligations on patentees and their licensees. For this reason, patentees and licensees likely will need to pay more attention to their product marking decisions.

Specifically, patentees and licensees need to make sure that they have a good faith basis to place their patent numbers on products and continue to make certain the marking is appropriate as products are modified. It also will be important to diligently investigate any assertions that the products are improperly marked. Patentees also will need to establish mechanisms to make certain that products are not marked with expired patent numbers.

Patent licensees who are required to mark as a condition of their license also are affected by this decision. Such licensees may want to consider including in their licenses provisions requiring the patent owner to indemnify them for false marking.

For some parties, it may be too late. The statute of limitations for false marking actions is five years. As a result, some patentees and licensees may already be exposing themselves to financial liability on a much greater scale than they ever anticipated.

Fear of liability, however, should not cause patentees to refrain from marking altogether. Correct marking remains essential to maximizing a patentee's award of damages against infringers. A correct marking can be made by placing the word "patent" or the abbreviation "pat." together with the number of the patent on the patented product itself. If the nature of the product does not permit it to be marked, then the packaging should be marked. Although marking is not required for patents that contain only process or method claims, patentees should consider marking end products where feasible.

 


Intellectual Property Information

What Are Patents, Trademarks, Servicemarks, and Copyrights?
What Is a Patent?
Information regarding your best approach to Patent protection
What Is a Trademark or Servicemark?
What Is a Copyright?

 

A Comparison of Various Types of Intellectual Property

 

Trade Secret

Copyright

Trademark

Design Patent

Utility Patent

What is protected?

Know-how

Original expression of an idea

Customer's notion of your good or service's source.

Visible appearance

Products, processes, compositions, functions

Typical things protected how to make Coca-cola, hidden high-tech methods, & etc. written material: computer programs, books, plays, poems; art: sculptures, paintings, photographs, etc. names, logos, internet domain names, designs, & etc. unique shape/styling of articles like product packaging, figurines, etc. tools, devices, machines, computer programs, games, processes, formulas, internet, electronic, chemical and business methods etc.

What are others prohibited from doing?

Unauthorized use or dissemination by someone who has been let in on the secret.

Copying the expression

Confusing the consumer.

Making something looking the same or similar..

Using the claimed invention.

How is the right established?

Use in trade

Authorship

Use in trade

Examination

Examination

What is needed to get protection?

Know-how must be well defined, not publicly known, and protected.

Tangible use of the expression. 

Mark must distinctive, and not confusingly similar to another.

Visible appearance must be new and not obvious.

Invention must be new, useful and not obvious, and you must teach how to make and use it.

Geographic coverage country of origin or by other countries by treaty Worldwide Country filed in Country filed in Country filed in, or worldwide if PCT filing

What is the duration of protection?

Until disclosed to the public.

life of author plus 50 years

10 years, or as long as it is in use.

14 years (US) from grant

At most 20 years from filing.

 

What Are Patents, Trademarks, Servicemarks, and Copyrights?

The difference between patents, copyrights, and trademarks can be confusing sometimes.  Although there may be some similarities among these kinds of intellectual property (IP) protection, they are different and serve very different purposes.

What Is a Patent?

A patent for an invention is the grant of a property right to the inventor, issued by the Patent and Trademark Office. The term of a new patent is 20 years from the date on which the application for the patent was filed in the United States or, in special cases, from the date an earlier related application was filed, subject to the payment of maintenance fees. US patent grants are effective only within the US, US territories, and US possessions.

The right conferred by the patent grant is, in the language of the statute and of the grant itself, "the right to exclude others from making, using, offering for sale, or selling" the invention in the United States or "importing" the invention into the United States. What is granted is not the right to make, use, offer for sale, sell or import, but the right to exclude others from making, using, offering for sale, selling or importing the invention.

What Is a Trademark or Servicemark?

A trademark is a word, name, symbol or device which is used in trade with goods to indicate the source of the goods and to distinguish them from the goods of others. A servicemark is the same as a trademark except that it identifies and distinguishes the source of a service rather than a product. The terms "trademark" and "mark" are commonly used to refer to both trademarks and servicemarks.

Trademark rights may be used to prevent others from using a confusingly similar mark, but not to prevent others from making the same goods or from selling the same goods or services under a clearly different mark. Trademarks which are used in interstate or foreign commerce may be registered with the Patent and Trademark Office.

What Is a Copyright?

Copyright is a form of protection provided to the authors of "original works of authorship" including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works, both published and unpublished. The 1976 Copyright Act generally gives the owner of copyright the exclusive right to reproduce the copyrighted work, to prepare derivative works, to distribute copies or phono records of the copyrighted work, to perform the copyrighted work publicly, or to display the copyrighted work publicly.

The copyright protects the form of expression rather than the subject matter of the writing. For example, a description of a machine could be copyrighted, but this would only prevent others from copying the description; it would not prevent others from writing a description of their own or from making and using the machine. Copyrights are registered by the Copyright Office of the Library of Congress.

 

About Our Provisional "Patent Pending" Application (PPA) Practice

There are some good reasons to file a Provisional "Patent Pending" Application, however, it is not always a good idea.  To better acquaint yourself with Provisional "Patent Pending" Application characteristics and considerations, you may want to review our FAQ on our Provisional "Patent Pending" Application services and our overview on provisional applications before proceeding.

It is imperative to understand that although a Provisional "Patent Pending" Application may written very informally (e.g., "cutting corners) to cut costs, if the Provisional "Patent Pending" Application does not satisfy the multitude of “best practices” and legal requirements, you can easily lose some or all of your future patent protection rights.  Understandably, many small business and independent inventors have an economic incentive to file a Provisional "Patent Pending" Application to attain presumed “Patent-Pending” legal protection while determining the invention’s market value before investing in the cost of a full non-provisional, Utility patent application.  

Bay Area IP recognizes that individual and small business inventors sometimes need a very affordable provisional “Patent-Pending” protection mechanism that they can use to either buy time to raise funds or for market testing their invention before investing in a non-provisional, Utility patent application.  Yet, other situation will have sufficient budget to procure a high quality Provisional "Patent Pending" Application to protect a potentially seminal idea(s).  That is why we offer two categories of service- the first is our quality oriented provisional application service, which serves clients who wish to have a relatively good quality follow-on non-provisional, Utility patent application, and the other category is our cost-focused Provisional "Patent Pending" Application practice, described in some detail below.

When it comes to getting provisional "Patent Pending" all provisional patent application services are NOT created equal.  Independent inventors, especially, should not be fooled to believe that Provisional "Patent Pending" Applications do not have the same quality or legal requirements than do full non-provisional, Utility patent applications.  If your Provisional "Patent Pending" Application is legally or technically insufficient, for any reason it cannot be corrected after filing.  That is because, by law, no new information may added to Provisional "Patent Pending" Applications; hence, any defects in the Provisional "Patent Pending" Application will automatically be inherited into the non-provisional, Utility patent application.  In this way, if you have low quality Provisional "Patent Pending" Application you likely will have a crippled or worthless corresponding non-provisional, Utility patent application.  Thus, not be you not only lose any patent protection you thought you had, yet, even worse, you will be barred from ever patenting your invention (Internationally as well) if it was ever publicly used or disclosed– a high risk to take just to avoid some relatively small upfront expenses.  This is why you should always procure the highest level of quality that you can afford.

This cost-focused category of Provisional "Patent Pending" services below provides an ideal vehicle for the independent inventors who are more concerned about attaining a quick “Patent-Pending” status at very low cost so they can buy time to raise funds for a or test market their invention to determine its value before investing significant funds. 


Provisional "Patent Pending" Application Drafting Basic- Plus

If cost is your most important constraint, yet you want to at least adequately cover the main aspects of your idea product and/or service, then the Basic Quality "Drafting Basic Plus" is highly recommended.  In this level of service you provide us a clear disclosure according to our instruction, we legally draft your Provisional "Patent Pending" Application it to satisfy minimum legal requirements and implement basic legal safeguards. This level of services is the same as the "Draft Basic" below plus it further includes a broad claim and greater patent scope/strength provisions, which better support the future Utility Patent strength and is required to preserves your International patent rights because many countries do not respect a Provisional "Patent Pending" Application filing without at least a broad claim. This is a good compromise between cost (e.g., "Drafting Basic" Provisional "Patent Pending" Application) and quality (e.g., the "Good Quality" Provisional "Patent Pending" Application).

Result:  Likely an OK quality non-provisional, Utility patent application, and you defer up to 80% in normal costs (depending on invention complexity) to the non-provisional, Utility patent application. This work generally proceeds as follows:

  1. In general, you provide us with a clear technical description of your invention for us to base our legal Provisional Patent Application writing upon. This can be accomplished in either of two ways:
    1. If time is a constraint, then simply fill out our Invention Disclosure Form in detail; or
    2. If quality is a priority, then prepare your submission according to detailed instructions we will provide you.
  2. We will take your clear invention description submission, and legally prepare a Provisional Patent Application that not only satisfies the minimum legal requirements, but supports an included broad claim and basic legal safeguards that provide significantly better quality support for a later filed utility patent application, which translates to stronger patent protection from any resulting patent issued. 
  3. Within about 2-3 weeks after receiving your clear Invention Disclosure and payment we will deliver to you a Provisional Patent Application suitable for filing with the US Patent Office.
  4. You then make any changes necessary to make the draft Provisional Patent Application technically accurate, and deliver the final version for filing with the US Patent Office.

Order the Provisional "Patent Pending" Application Drafting Basic- Plus

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Provisional "Patent Pending" Application Drafting Basic

For inventors who want a legal professional to legally draft their Provisional Patent Application at a relatively low cost, and are not too concerned about patent scope or preserving there International patent rights, yet want their Provisional Patent Application to at least cover their core product/service idea and include basic legal “best practices.” 

Key features includes the following:

  • We provide you instructions on how to put together your Invention Description submission.
  • We will take your clear invention disclosure, whether by way of an Invention Disclosure Form or your clear invention description, and prepare a Provisional Patent Application that not only satisfies the minimum legal requirements, but includes basic legal safeguards that provide significantly better quality support for a later filed utility patent application, which translates to stronger patent protection from any resulting patent issued.
  • Within about 2 weeks after receiving your clear Invention Disclosure and payment we will deliver to you by secure email or floppy disk a Provisional Patent Application suitable for filing with the US Patent Office.
  • You then make any changes necessary to make the draft Provisional Patent Application technically accurate, and deliver the final version
  • File your application electronically with the Patent Office.

Order Provisional "Patent Pending" Application Drafting Basic


 

Sample Patents

A representative sampling of some of our patent work over the past 10 years.
  • 7,970,868 (USPTOlink) "Customizable, smart-tag based content delivery and notification system, program, and method for connecting entities on the world wide web ",June 28, 2011 .
  • 7,951,050 (USPTOlink) "Apparatus for aerobic leg exercise of a seated user ",May 31, 2011 .
  • 7,946,042 (USPTOlink) "Apparatus and a method for drafting a framework for a pattern ",May 24, 2011 .
  • 7,936,242 (USPTOlink) "Magnetically operated electrical switch ",May 3, 2011 .
  • 7,918,111 (USPTOlink) "Lock device that enable users to choose the security level of the lock ",April 5, 2011 .
  • 7,854,181 (USPTOlink) "Manual transmission shifter ",December 21, 2010 .
  • 7,824,053 (USPTOlink) "Tattletale cap ",November 2, 2010 .
  • 7,778,973 (USPTOlink) "System, method, and program for sharing photos via the internet ",August 17, 2010 .
  • 7,755,374 (USPTOlink) "Apparatus and method for testing semiconductor devices ",July 13, 2010 .
  • D614,987 (USPTOlink) "Light bar ",May 4, 2010 .
  • 7,711,142 (USPTOlink) "Method and system for composing a digital signature graphic appearance and specifying a document display location thereof ",May 4, 2010 .
  • 7,686,119 (USPTOlink) "Apparatus for reinforcing seatbelt usage in automobiles ",March 30, 2010 .
  • 7,681,266 (USPTOlink) "Adjustable recliner bed ",March 23, 2010 .
  • 7,669,602 (USPTOlink) "Shoulder press ",March 2, 2010 .
  • 7,662,006 (USPTOlink) "Shaped inflatable water sports board",February 16, 2010 .
  • 7,647,700 (USPTOlink) "Device for the removal of H-taps ",January 19, 2010 .
  • D606,074 (USPTOlink) "Ergonomic keyboard with touch pad ",December 15, 2009 .
  • D601,694 (USPTOlink) "Hygienic cleansing apparatus ",October 6, 2009.
  • 7,577,622 (USPTOlink) "Method, apparatus and medium for data management collaboration in the transport of goods ",August 18, 2009.
  • 7,577,622 (USPTOlink) "Method, apparatus and medium for data management collaboration in the transport of goods",August 18, 2009 .
  • 7,574,882 (USPTOlink) "Tubular radial pin tumbler lock",August 18, 2009.
  • 7,485,786 (USPTOlink) "Percussion instrument and noisemaking device ",February 3, 2009 .
  • 7,428,881 (USPTOlink) "Rotary nail filing apparatus for animals",September 30, 2008.
  • D573,760 (USPTOlink) "Surface-cleaning apparatus",July 22, 2008.
  • 7,378,594 (USPTOlink) "Electrical wire connector device with visual connection validation",May 27, 2008.
  • D567,845 (USPTOlink) "Pick for stringed musical instruments",April 29, 2008.
  • D549,032 (USPTOlink) "American flag style cover for barbecue or the like",August 21, 2007.
  • 7,219,930 (USPTOlink) "Snowboard back foot support apparatus",May 22, 2007 .
  • 7,213,950 (USPTOlink) "Detachable light shade for wall fixture lighting",May 8, 2007.
  • 7,153,062 (USPTOlink) "Apparatus for securely supporting scuba tanks via a vehicle hitch",December 26, 2006.
  • 7,055,279 (USPTOlink) "Apparatus and method for cleaning paintball guns ",June 6, 2006.
  • 7,016,704 (USPTOlink) "Coordinating images displayed on devices with two or more displays ",March 21, 2006, MOVE Mobile Systems, Inc. (Mountain View, CA).
  • US 20110073160(A1) (USPTOlink) "RADIANT ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEM",December 7, 2010.
  • US 20110007500(A1) (USPTOlink) "APPARATUS FOR A SOLAR WINDOW NIGHTLIGHT",August 30, 2010.
  • WO/2010/138632 (WIPOlink) "A PORTABLE, COLLAPSIBLE, WORKSTATION TRAY TABLE APPARATUS", May 26, 2010.
  • WO/2010/008399 (Espacenet link)"DYE DOPED GRAPHITE GRAPHENE SOLAR CELL ON ALUMINUM", July 28, 2010
  • WO 2010132207(A2) (USPTOlink) "A SYSTEM, METHOD AND COMPUTER PROGRAM PRODUCT FOR COLLECTING AND MANAGING ALLOY VERIFICATION", 28-APR-2010.
  • US20110004486(A1) (USPTOlink) "System and a Method for Purchasing Healthcare Products", April 28, 2010.
  • US20110073764(A1) (USPTOlink) "Method and System for Nuclear Imaging Using Multi-Zone Detector Architecture",February 16, 2010.
  • US20110035291 (USPTOlink) "Method and System for Online Redistribution of Information", February 2, 2010.
  • US20100187193(A1) (USPTOlink) "Shoe Rack Attachment", January 25, 2010.
  • US 20100179604(A1) (USPTOlink) "Apparatus and Method for Radiolucent Anatomic Positioning", January 9, 2010.
  • US20100122253(A1) (USPTOlink) "SYSTEM, METHOD AND COMPUTER PROGRAM PRODUCT FOR PROGRAMMING A CONCURRENT SOFTWARE APPLICATION", November, 9, 2010.
  • US20100092582 (A1) (USPTOlink)"Topical Hair Care Formulation and Method of Making", October 13, 2010.
  • US20110041923(A1) (USPTOlink)" APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR THE FREEING OF SEIZED VALVES", August 24, 2009.
  • US20100092582(A1) (USPTOlink)" APPARATUS FOR CONVERTING WAVE ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY", July 4, 2010.
  • US20100205007(A1) (USPTOlink)" Method of Pathologic Correlation for Radiology Resident Education", July, 4 , 2010.
  • US20100020033(A1) (USPTOlink)" SYSTEM, METHOD AND COMPUTER PROGRAM PRODUCT FOR A VIRTUAL KEYBOARD",July 4, 2010.
  • US20100205141(A1) (A1) (USPTOlink)" METHOD, SYSTEM AND COMPUTER PROGRAM PRODUCT FOR DATA COLLECTION AND RETRIEVAL FOR MEDICAL RESEARCH", July 4, 2010.
  • US20100083514(A1) (USPTOlink)" Apparatus and a Method for Drafting a Framework for a Pattern", July 3, 2010.
  • US20100331144(A1) (USPTOlink)" EXERCISE MACHINE",June 30, 2010.
  • WO/2010/033289 (USPTOlink)" AN APPARATUS FOR MOUNTING AN ANATOMICAL POSITIONER ON A PATIENT CARE PLATFORM" June 30, 2009.
  • US20100190144(A1) (USPTOlink)" Method, System and Computer Program Product for Studying for a Multiple-Choice Exam", June 25, 2010.
  • US20090314280(A1) (USPTOlink)" Apparatus and A Method for Solar Tracking and Concentration af Incident Solar Radiation for Power Generation", June, 19,2009.
  • US20100312121(A1) (USPTOlink)" APPARATUS FOR A NEEDLE DIRECTOR FOR AN ULTRASOUND TRANSDUCER PROBE:,June 9, 2010.
  • US 20090291764 (A1) (USPTOlink)" SYSTEM AND APPARATUS FOR A CONTROLLED TOY TO INTERACT WITH A COMPUTER GAME",May 19, 2010.
  • US20100287731(A1) (USPTOlink)" Window Maintenance Apparatus for A Tilt-In Sash", May 19, 2010.
  • US20100289315(A1) (USPTOlink)" APPARATUS FOR PORTABLE CUSHIONS FOR HEAD AND NECK SUPPORT OF A PASSENGER IN A VEHICLE",May 13,2 009.
  • US20100071128(A1) (USPTOlink)" APPARATUS FOR MOUNTING AN ANATOMICAL POSITIONER ON A PATIENT CARE PLATFORM", May 12, 2010.
  • US20090283101(A1) (USPTOlink)" DEVICE FOR PROTECTING A NIPPLE OF A MOTHER DURING NURSING",May 7, 2009.
  • US20100283249(A1) (USPTOlink)" SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR CONVERSION OF OCEAN WAVES INTO USABLE MECHANICAL ENERGY",May 7, 2010.
  • US20100276967(A1) (USPTOlink)" Apparatus for a Pickup Truck Box Cover",May 2, 2010.
  • US20090327043(A1) (USPTOlink)"Method And System Of Ranking A Document", April 29, 2009.
  • US20100243493(A1) (USPTOlink)" APPARATUS FOR AN ELECTRIC TOOTHBRUSH COVER", April 8, 2010.
  • US20100243724(A1) (USPTOlink)" Payment Apparatus for a Personal Transportation System",March 30, 2009.
  • US2010024147(A1) (USPTOlink)" SYSTEM AND APPARATUS FOR RAPID RECHARGING OF ELECTRIC BATTERIES",March 18, 2010.
  • US20100235750(A1) (USPTOlink)" SYSTEM, METHOD AND PROGRAM PRODUCT FOR A GRAPHICAL INTERFACE",March 12,2010.
  • US2010022882(A1) (USPTOlink)" MOBILE DATABASE NETWORK", March 6, 2010.
  • US20100058202(A1) (USPTOlink)" METHOD SYSTEM AND PROGRAM PRODUCT FOR PROVIDING ENABLING AN INTERACTIVE AND SOCIAL SEARCH ENGINE", February 19, 2010.
  • US20090211143(A1) (USPTOlink)" HIGHLY MANEUVERABLE FISHING LURE", February 19, 2009.
  • US20090304169(A1) (USPTOlink)" ADVERTISEMENT OR INFORMATION FEEDING METHOD, SYSTEM, AND PROGRAM FOR COMPLETING DEALS BETWEEN POTENTIAL CONSUMERS AND INFORMATION PROVIDERS",February 17, 2009.
  • US20090199343(A1) (USPTOlink)" Portable Breastfeeding and Nursing Pillow", February 5, 2009.
  • US20100130233(A1) (USPTOlink)" SYSTEM, METHOD AND PROGRAM PRODUCT FOR LOCATION BASED SERVICES, ASSET MANAGEMENT AND TRACKING", January 30, 2010.
  • US20100131361(A1) (USPTOlink)" METHOD, SYSTEM AND COMPUTER PROGRAM PRODUCT FOR DISTRIBUTING A MARKETING MESSAGE OVER MOBILE DEVICES", January 30, 2010.
  • US20100181934(A1) (USPTOlink)" AUTOMATIC, LOW LEVEL FLOOR LIGHTING SYSTEM",January 22, 2010.
  • US20090181609 (A1) (USPTOlink)" RETRACTABLE HIDEAWAY CHIMNEY DAMPER CAP",January 9, 2009.
  • US2010017030(A1) (USPTOlink)" TAMPER RESISTANT PORTABLE LOCK SHROUD",January 7, 2010.
  • US20100174719(A1) (USPTOlink)" SYSTEM, METHOD, AND PROGRAM PRODUCT FOR PERSONALIZATION OF AN OPEN NETWORK SEARCH ENGINE",January 6, 2010.
  • US20100005400(A1) (USPTOlink)" SYSTEM, METHOD, AND PROGRAM PRODUCT FOR IDENTIFYING AND PROVIDING SUGGESTIONS",December 29, 2008
  • US20090139457(A1) (USPTOlink)" METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR ACCLIMATING AQUATIC ORGANISMS TO A NEW ENVIRONMENT",November 20, 2008.
  • US 20090292548(A1) (USPTOlink)" METHOD, SYSTEM, AND PROGRAM PRODUCT FOR INFORMATION EDITORIAL CONTROLS",November 8, 2008.
  • US 20100121297(A1) (USPTOlink)" SKIN PATCH FOR ABSORBING TOXINS FROM THE BODY",November 10, 2008.
  • US 20100104668(A1) (USPTOlink)" NUTRITIONAL SUPPLEMENT FOR HONEYBEES", October 24, 2008.
  • US 20100089282(A1) (USPTOlink)" COMMUTER TRAIN FERRY SYSTEM FOR COMMUTERS AND THEIR VEHICLES", October 14, 2008.
  • US 20100078095(A1) (USPTOlink)" MORE SILENT AND ROBUST ELECTRIC PENCIL SHARPENER",October 1, 2008.
  • US 20090148644(A1) (USPTOlink)" HIGHLY CONFORMABLE ADHESIVE DEVICE FOR COMPOUND, MOVING OR VARIABLE FORMS",September 26, 2008.
  • US 20100082178(A1) (USPTOlink)" APPARATUS FOR HOLDING MARTIAL ARTS BOARDS", September 12, 2008.
  • 7,568,451 (USPTOlink)" Rotary nail filing apparatus for animals"August 19, 2008.
  • US 20100017939(A1) (USPTOlink)" Device and Method for Sealing Protective Gloves",July 24, 2008.
  • US20090025245(A1) (USPTOlink)" MEASURING DEVICE AND ACCESSORIES FOR PREPARING QUILT PIECES",July 15, 2008.
  • US 20090301579(A1) (USPTO link)" VACUUM PRESSURE SYSTEMS WITH VACUUM CHAMBER FULL-RANGE, CLOSED-LOOP PRESSURE CONTROL” , June 10, 2008.
  • US 20090305204(A1) (USPTOlink)" RELATIVELY LOW-COST VIRTUAL REALITY SYSTEM, METHOD, AND PROGRAM PRODUCT TO PERFORM TRAINING",June 6, 2008.
  • US20090295106(A1) (USPTO link) "Machine for the transportation of physically challenged persons", May 30, 2008.
  • US20090287305(A1) (USPTO link) "Wholly implantable non-natural heart for humans",May 19, 2008.
  • US 20090282009(A1) (USPTO link) "SYSTEM, METHOD, AND PROGRAM PRODUCT FOR AUTOMATED GRADING", may 8, 2008.
  • US 20080284103 (A1) (USPTO link) "INSTRUCTIONAL BOARD OR ELECTRONIC MEDIA GAME ", May 6, 2008 .
  • US20080263884(A1) (USPTO link) "APPARATUS FOR PREPARING MATERIAL PIECES TO BE SEWN" Apr. 18, 2008.
  • US 20090264800(A1) (USPTO link)" THERAPEUTIC SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR IMPROVING EYE-TRACKING SKILLS", April 18, 2008.
  • US 20080270538(A1) (USPTO link)" CUSTOMIZABLE, SMART-TAG BASED CONTENT DELIVERY AND NOTIFICATION SYSTEM, PROGRAM, AND METHOD FOR CONNECTING ENTITIES ON THE WORLD WIDE WEB", April 18, 2008.
  • US 20080177839 (A1) (USPTO link)" Method, System, and Program for Integrating Disjoined but Related Network Components into Collaborative Communities", April 3, 2008.
  • 7,918,111 (USPTO link)" Lock device that enable users to choose the security level of the lock". March 27, 2008.
  • US 20090184509 (A1) (USPTO link)"TABBED LABEL DEVICE FOR HOME OR OFFICE ORGANIZATIONAL TASKS", March 11, 2008.
  • US20080173120(A1) (USPTO link)" MANUAL TRANSMISSION SHIFTER HAVING CONTINUOUSLY ADJUSTABLE THROW", march 1, 2008.
  • US 20080263884 (A1) (USPTO link)" APPARATUS FOR PREPARING MATERIAL PIECES TO BE SEWN", April 18, 2008.
  • US 20080270538 (A1) (USPTO link)" CUSTOMIZABLE, SMART-TAG BASED CONTENT DELIVERY AND NOTIFICATION SYSTEM, PROGRAM, AND METHOD FOR CONNECTING ENTITIES ON THE WORLD WIDE WEB"April 18, 2008.
  • US20090265229 (A1)" (USPTO link) SYSTEM, METHOD, AND PROGRAM PRODUCT FOR BUYER DRIVEN SERVICES E-COMMERCE", April 18, 2008.
  • US20080173120 (A1) (USPTO link) "MANUAL TRANSMISSION SHIFTER HAVING CONTINUOUSLY ADJUSTABLE THROW",MArch 1, 2008.
  • US 20090217715 (A1) (USPTO link)" DEVICE FOR DETERRING UNAUTHORIZED ACCESS OF LOCKS ON FENCE GATES", February 29, 2008.
  • US 20080271994 (A1) (USPTO link) "Method and Apparatus for Using an Electric Field for Controlling of the Crystallizing Material or Materials", February 1, 2008.
  • WO/2008/091914 (WIPO link)" METHOD, SYSTEM, AND PROGRAM FOR AN INTEGRATING DISJOINED BUT RELATED NETWORK COMPONENTS INTO COLLABORATIVE COMMUNITIES", January 22, 2008.
  • 7,597,610 (USPTO link) "Stand-up grinder caddy with adjustable height and low profile floating head", January 14, 2008.
  • US 20080196298 (A1) (USPTO link) "Synthesizing Hydrocarbons of Coal with Ethanol", January 7, 2008.
  • US 20090146960 (A1) (USPTO link) "COMPUTER KEYBOARD HAVING AN ENHANCED ERGONOMIC AND INTUITIVE DESIGN", December 5, 2007.
  • US 20080136778 (A1) (USPTO link) "MOUSE DEVICE FOR A COMPUTER", December 4, 2007.
  • US 20090083932 (A1) (USPTO link) "Electrically and battery powered vacuum cleaner" November 30, 2007.
  • D606,074 (USPTO link) "Ergonomic keyboard with touch pad", November 26, 2007.
  • US 20090084563 (A1) (USPTO link) "Shovel for sifting debris from soil ", November 19, 2007.
  • US 20090084270 (A1) (USPTO link) "Electrically and battery powerd coffeemaker ", November 19, 2007.
  • US 20090084033 (A1) (USPTO link) "Portable planting frame ", November 19, 2007.
  • US 20090087823 (A1) (USPTO link) "Monetary skills game", November 19, 2007.
  • US 20090084033 (A1) (USPTO link), "Portable planting frame", November 19, 2007.
  • US 20090121863 (A1) (USPTO link) "Medical safety monitor system ", November 13, 2007.
  • WO 2009064285 (A1) (USPTO link)"APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR TESTING SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES", November, 13, 2007.
  • WO 2008050235 (A1) (WIPO link) "SURFACE-CLEANING APPARATUS WITH HEIGHT ADJUSTABLE BASE", October 24, 2007.
  • US 20080256743 (A1) (USPTO link)"Surface-Cleaning Apparatus with Height Adjustable Base", October 22, 2007.
  • US 20080072727 (A1) (USPTO link) "Hand tool with built-in measuring means ", September 14, 2007.
  • US 2008068066 (A1) (Espacenet link) "High efficiency white LED drivers", September. 14, 2007.
  • US 20100231334 (A1) (USPTO link) "Magnetically operated electrical switch", September 14, 2007.
  • US20080059453(A1) (USPTO link) "SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR ENHANCING THE RESULT OF A QUERY"August 22, 2007.
  • US 20090050265(A1) (USPTO link) "Apparatus for making a fishing line knot",August 24, 2007.
  • US 2008040891(A1) (Espacenetlink) "Exercise equipment handle grips", Aug. 14, 2007.
  • US 20090038673 (A1) (USPTO link) "Solar emergency power kit ", August 8, 2007.
  • US20070106565(A1) (USPTO link) "Method For Using A Communications Network To Define A Product, And The Ordering Thereof By A Consumer", September 12, 2006.
  • US20080015553(A1) (USPTO link) "Steering laser treatment system and method of use", July 12, 2006.
  • US20080303602(A1) (USPTO link) "Infinite Radio Frequency Spectrum Transceiver", June 6, 2007.
  • US20080073852(A1) (USPTO link) "Deterministic method and system for determining winners of scratch and win ticket contests and other numeric prize contests",March 6, 2007.
  • US20070299396(A1) (USPTO link) "Pulsating irrigator apparatus for hygienic cleansing", June 20, 2007.
  • US20070289634(A1) (USPTO link) "Method and Apparatus for the Sealing of Valves", May 17, 2007.
  • US20070157393 (A1) (USPTO link) "Adjustable recliner bed",January 3, 2007.
  • US20070170230 (A1) (USPTO link)" Device and Advertising Method for Popup Packaging", November 12,2006.
  • US 20070070531(A1) (USPTO link) "Radiant Energy Conversion System", September 21,2006.
  • US2008001555(A1) (USPTO link) "Steering laser treatment system and method of use",July 12, 2006.
  • US20060259289(A1) (USPTO link) "Method and system for specifying and developing application systems with dynamic behavior", May 13, 2006.
  • US 20060236565 (A1) (USPTO link) "Ride-on snow blower", April 22, 2006.
  • 20070218960(A1) (USPTO link) "Combined electric iron and audio device",March20, 2006.
  • US 20070226078(A1) (USPTO link) "GUIDING INFO TABS WITH GUIDE SELECTION", March 6, 2006.
  • 7,780,081 (USPTO link) "System and method for security protection, inventory tracking and automated shopping cart checkout",December 17, 2005.
  • US20070140892 (A1) (USPTO link) "Clean seas ", November, 15, 2005.
  • US20090291764(A1) (USPTO link) "SYSTEM AND APPARATUS FOR A CONTROLLED TOY TO INTERACT WITH A COMPUTER GAME",May 19, 2009.
  • US 20070040155 (A1) (USPTO link) "Staple remover",March 25, 2005.
  • US 20050052015 (A1) (USPTO link) "Waterproof, tear-resistant accordion book with magnetic covers and method of making same", July 19, 2004.
  • US 20090015229 (A1) (USPTO link) "Bi-directional DC power converter", July 14, 2007.
  • US 20090004936 (A1) (USPTO link) "Shaped inflatable water sports board", June 28, 2007.
  • D601,694 (USPTO link)" Hygienic cleansing apparatus", June 28, 2007.
  • US 20070299396 (A1) (USPTO link)"Pulsating irrigator apparatus for hygienic cleansing", June 20, 2007.
  • WO/2007/137211 (USPTO link)"TISSUE SYNTHETIC-BIOMATERIAL HYBRID MEDICAL DEVICES" May 19, 2007.
  • US 20070243021(A1) (USPTO link) "Water-filled flood bags for emergency flood control", April 10, 2007.
  • US 20080077388 (A1) (USPTOlink)" Electronic multilingual numeric and language learning tool", March 13, 2007.
  • US20080087671 (USPTOlink) "Device for containment and protection of a liquid handling system", March 6, 2007.
  • US20080056516 (USPTO link) "Compact open baffle speaker system" March 6, 2007.
  • US 20080073852 (A1) (USPTO link) "Deterministic method and system for determining winners of scratch and win ticket contests and other numeric prize contests", March 6, 2007.
  • 7,378,594 (USPTO link)"Electrical wire connector device with visual connection validation", January 26, 2007.
  • US 20080182735 (A1) (USPTO link)"Harness apparatus for squatting exercises", January 26, 2007.
  • D559,850 (USPTO link) "Laptop stand ", January 17, 2007.
  • US 20080105016 (A1) (USPTO link) "Tubular radial pin tumbler lock", November 2, 2006.
  • US 20070094132 (A1) (USPTO link)"System and method for person to person electronic fund transfer using video payphones", October 14, 2006.
  • US 20080038981 (A1) #] (USPTO link) "Wicking quick-dry anti-microbial towel" August 14, 2006.
  • WO 2007014064 (A2) (WIPO link) "SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR A THUMB-OPTIMIZED TOUCH-SCREEN USER INTERFACE ", July 21, 2006.
  • US 20060251290 (A1) (USPTO link) "Method and system for composing a digital signature graphic appearance and specifying a document display location thereof " , April 22, 2006.
  • US 20070031009 (A1) (USPTO link) "Method and system for string-based biometric authentication ", April 11, 2006.
  • US 20060230907(A1) (USPTO link) "Percussion instrument and noisemaking device", April 11, 2006.
  • US20070144530(A1) (USPTO link) "Shoulder press",December, 22, 2005.
  • US 20060144340 (A1) (USPTO link)"Apparatus for a disposable pet food feeding container" December 21, 2005.
  • US 20070126238 (A1) (USPTO link) "Apparatus for increasing motor vehicle fuel efficiency", December 7, 2005.
  • US20070127232(A1) (USPTO link) "Tattletale cap", December 6, 2005.
  • US20070107283(A1), (USPTO link)" Outdoor signage with enhanced readability in direct sunlight",November 17, 2005.
  • 7,428,881 (USPTO link)"Rotary nail filing apparatus for animals", October 25, 2005Staple remover.
  • US20070040155(A1) (USPTO link)" Staple remover", MArch 25, 2005.
  • US 20060188180 (A1) (USPTO link) "Plastic bags with gripping tabs ", February 24, 2005.
  • 7,647,700 (USPTO link) "Device for the removal of H-taps", February 19, 2005.
  • US20050103146(A1) (USPTO link) "Manual transmission shifter", January 27, 2005.
  • US 20050109189 (A1) (USPTO link) "Pick for stringed musical instruments ", November 24, 2004.
  • 7,295,920 (USPTO link) "Apparatus and method for car relocation and parking timer ", November 4, 2004.
  • 7,681,524 (USPTO link) "Recreational cat house" September 14, 2004.
  • US 20060054674 A1 (USPTO link) "Efficient clothing article organizer", September 14, 2004.
  • US 20050052015 (A1) (USPTO link) "Waterproof, tear-resistant accordion book with magnetic covers and method of making same", Waterproof, tear-resistant accordion book with magnetic covers and method of making same", July 19, 2004.
  • US 20050289047 (A1) (USPTO link) "Virtual marketplace for wireless device applications and services with integrated multi-party settlement", June 28, 2004.
  • US 20050239538 (A1) (USPTO link)"System and method for gambling video games", April 23, 2004.
  • 7,485,786 (USPTO link) "Percussion instrument and noisemaking device"April 11, 2006.
  • US20070089686(A1) (USPTO link) "Rotary nail filing apparatus for animals",October 25, 2005.
  • US 20060041499(A1) (USPTO link) "Obtaining A Need With Guiding Information And Credit Worthiness Using A Competitive Process",August 22, 2005.
  • US 20050103146 (A1) (USPTO link) "Manual transmission shifter", January 27, 2005.
  • US 20050077383 (A1) (USPTO link) "Atomization jet assembly ", April 8, 2004.
  • US 20050205180 (A1) (USPTO link) "Method and apparatus for three dimensional object covers", March 16, 2004.
  • US20050184266(A1) (USPTO link) "Apparatus and method for the freeing of seized valves",February 21, 2004.
  • US 20030077205 (A1) (USPTO link) "Diagnostic test optical fiber tips" October 24, 2001.
  • US 2008 7388764 (USPTO link) Active Semiconductors International Inc., (Santa Clara, CA) "Primary side constant output current controller", June 17, 2008
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  • US 20080086710 (USPTO link) Active Semiconductors International Inc., (Santa Clara, CA) "Method and system for the modular design and layout of integrated circuits", April 10, 2008
  • US 20080084743 (USPTO link) Active Semiconductors International Inc., (Santa Clara, CA) "Memory stucture capable of bit-wise write or overwrite", April 10, 2008
  • US 20080105016 (USPTO link) "Tubular radial pin tumbler lock", May 8, 2008
  • US 20080072727 (USPTO link) "Hand tool with built-in measuring means", March 27, 2008
  • WO2008050235 (WIPO link) "SURFACE-CLEANING APPARATUS WITH HEIGHT ADJUSTABLE BASE", 2008-05-02
  • US 20080083936 (USPTO link) Active Semiconductors International Inc., (Santa Clara, CA) "Interconnect layer of a modularly designed analog integrated circuit", April 10, 2008
  • US 20080056516 (USPTO link) "Compact open baffle speaker system", March 6, 2008
  • WO2007137211 (WIPO Link) "TISSUE SYNTHETIC-BIOMATERIAL HYBRID MEDICAL DEVICES", 2007-11-29
  • US 2007 7016704 (1.7 Mb) Move Mobile Systems, Inc. (Los Altos, CA) "Coordinating images displayed on devices with two or more displays"
  • US 20080084682 (USPTO link) Active Semiconductors International Inc., (Santa Clara, CA) "Microbump function assignment in a buck converter", April 10, 2008
  • US 20070299396 (USPTO link) Health Solution Medical Products Corporation, (Culver City, CA) "Pulsating irrigator apparatus for hygienic cleansing", December 27, 2007
  • US 20070285219 (USPTO link) "Apparatus for reinforcing seatbelt usage in automobiles", December 13, 2007
  • US 20070268119 (USPTO link) "Child abandonment avoidance system for automobiles", November 22, 2007
  • WO2007075405 (WIPO link) "Apparatus for controlled initiation of fluid-flow from an inverted container", 2007-10-25
  • US 20070156555 (USPTO link) "Systems, methods and programs for determining optimal financial structures and risk exposures", July 5, 2007
  • US 20070198552 (USPTO link) "System, method, and programs for automatically building audit triggers on database tables", August 23, 2007
  • WO2007041018 (WIPO link) "RADIANT ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEM", 2007-04-12
  • WO2006026325 (WIPO link) "IMPLANTABLE TISSUE COMPOSITIONS AND METHOD"
  • US 20060054674 (USPTO link) "Efficient clothing article organizer", September 14, 2004
    US2007094132 (WIPO link) "System and method for person to person electronic fund transfer using video payphones", 2007-04-26
  • WO2006014354 (WIPO link) Embedio, Inc., Brea, CA "Method and system for concurrent execution of multiple kernels", 2006-02-09
  • WO2007050342 (WIPO link) "A ROTARY NAIL FILING APPARATUS FOR ANIMALS", 2007-05-03
  • US 20080038981 (USPTO link) "Wicking quick-dry anti-microbial towel", February 14, 2008
  • US 20070031009 (USPTO link) "Method and system for string-based biometric authentication", February 8, 2007
  • US 20070289634 (USPTO link) "Method and Apparatus for the Sealing of Valves", December 20, 2007
  • WO2007121278 (WIPO link) "WATER-FILLED FLOOD BAGS FOR EMERGENCY FLOOD CONTROL", 2007-10-25
  • US 20070133234 (USPTO link) Active Semiconductors International Inc., (Santa Clara, CA) "System and method for a primary feedback switched mode power supply", June 14, 2007
  • US 20070080675 (USPTO link) Active Semiconductors International Inc., (Santa Clara, CA) "System and method for near zero light-load supply current in switching regulator", April 12, 2007
  • WO2005107907 (WIPO link) "System and method for gambling video games"
  • WO2006088809 (WIPO link) "DIGITAL MOBILE PLANNER"
    US 20070218960 (USPTO link) "Combined electric iron and audio device", September 20, 2007
  • US 20070157393 (USPTO link) "Adjustable recliner bed", July 12, 2007
  • US 20070126238 (USPTO link) "Apparatus for increasing motor vehicle fuel efficiency", June 7, 2007
  • US 20070112517 (USPTO link) "System and method for coordinate mapping onto airport diagrams", May 17, 2007
  • US 20070107283 (USPTO link) "Outdoor signage with enhanced readability in direct sunlight", May 17, 2007
  • US 20070106565 (USPTO link) "Method For Using A Communications Network To Define A Product, And The Ordering Thereof By A Consumer", May 10, 2007
  • US 2007 7213950 (USPTO link) "Detachable light shade for wall fixture lighting", May 8, 2007
  • US 20070068114 (USPTO link) "Methods and system to efficiently design and erect buildings", March 29, 2007
  • US 20070080674 (USPTO link) Active Semiconductors International Inc., (Santa Clara, CA) "System and method for an adaptive synchronous switch in switching regulators", April 12, 2007
  • US 20070075695 (USPTO link) Active Semiconductors International Inc., (Santa Clara, CA) "High switching frequency DC-DC converter with fast response time", April 5, 2007
  • US 20070033258 (USPTO link) "System and method for an email firewall and use thereof", February 8, 2007
  • WO2007011700 (WIPO link) "SYNTHESIZING HYDROCARBONS OF COAL WITH ETHANOL", 2007-01-25
  • US 20060270914 (USPTO link) "Apparatus for pediatric resuscitation", November 30, 2006
  • US 2006 7055279 (USPTO link) "Apparatus and method for cleaning paintball guns", June 6, 2006
  • WO2006052553 (WIPO link) "APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR CAR RELOCATION AND PARKING TIMER", 2006-05-18
  • WO2007014064 (WIPO link) "SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR A THUMB-OPTIMIZED TOUCH-SCREEN USER INTERFACE", 2007-02-01
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  • US 20060264190 (USPTO link) "System and method for linearizing nonlinear power amplifiers", November 23, 2006
  • US 20060250007 (USPTO link) "Thigh support device", November 9, 2006
  • US 20070170230 (USPTO link) "Device and Advertising Method for Popup Packaging", November 12, 2006
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  • WO2006110925 (WIPO link) "PERCUSSION INSTRUMENT AND NOISEMAKING DEVICE", 2006-10-19
  • US 20060112332 (USPTO link) "System and method for design checking", May 25, 2006
  • US 20060042495 (USPTO link) "System and method for zero latency distributed processing of timed pyrotechnic events", March 2, 2006
  • US 20050269827 (USPTO link) "Apparatus for lifting of ferromagnetic metal sheets", December 8, 2005
    US 20060129463 (USPTO link) "Method and system for automatic product searching, and use thereof", December 15, 2004
  • US 20060183505 (USPTO link) "Digital mobile planner", February 13, 2006
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  • WO2006113312 (WIPO link) "METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR STRING-BASED BIOMETRIC AUTHENTICATION", April 4, 2006
  • US 20060251290 (USPTO link) "Method and system for composing a digital signature graphic appearance and specifying a document display location thereof", April 22, 2006
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  • US 20060101124 (USPTO link) "Method and apparatus for mass email transmission", November 7, 2005
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  • US 20060236565 (USPTO link) "Ride-on snow blower", April 22, 2006
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  • US 20050109189 (USPTO link) "Pick for stringed musical instruments"
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  • US 20030173945 (705 kb) Genesis Microchip Inc. (Alviso, CA) "Method and apparatus for digital frequency conversion", March 18, 2002
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  • US 6,664,615 (760 kb) National Semiconductor Corp. (Santa Clara, CA) "Method and apparatus for lead-frame based grid array IC packaging", December 16, 2003
  • US 6,765,298 (500 kb) National Semiconductor Corp. (Santa Clara, CA) "Substrate pads with reduced impedance mismatch and methods to fabricate substrate pads", June 12, 2003
  • US 6,607,941 (1.5 Mbyte) National Semiconductor Corp. (Santa Clara, CA) "Process and Structure Improvements to Shellcase Style Packaging Technology", January 11, 2002
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  • US 20030101451 (2.6 megaByte) "System, method, and software application for targeted advertising via behavioral model clustering, and preference programming based on behavioral model clusters", January 9, 2002
  • US 20030101449 (2.5 megabyte) "System and method for behavioral model clustering in television usage, targeted advertising via model clustering, and preference programming based on behavioral model clusters", January 9, 2002
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